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Freeter, Neets, Yuppies

Seminar: Freeter, Neets, Yuppies :-: 1 プレカリアート(AMAMIYA Karin), encyclopedia entry :-: 2 現代のプレかリーアトは何を語るか (UTSUNOMIYA Kenji) :-:-:-: Extra: Mabuchi 2002 :-: フリータとニートの社会学(TARÔMARU Hiroshi) Preface, Chapter 1 2 3 (pp.1-79) :-: Freeter and Neet (KOSUGI Reiko)(p.6-8) :-: 文化系ニートの生きる道 (pp.90-95)


680 entriesCreated by Bastian B. — Last modified: 2011-12-11 21:55:53
財布 【さいふ】purse, handbag, wallet
撮る 【とる】to take (a photo), to make (a film)
貼る 【はる】to stick, to paste, to affix
隣 【となり】neighbor (neighbour), next to (esp. living next door to)
はっきりclearly, plainly, distinctly
場合 【ばあい】case, situation
決して 【けっして】never, by no means, decidedly, indisputably
理由 【りゆう】reason, pretext, motive
競争 【きょうそう】① competition, contest ② to compete
経験 【けいけん】experience
普通 【ふつう】① general, ordinary, usual ② normally, generally, usually ③ train that stops at every station
娘 【むすめ】① (my) daughter ② girl (i.e. a young, unmarried woman)
腕 【うで】① arm ② skill
格好 【かっこう】① shape, form, posture, appearance, manner ② suitability, moderateness (in price)
嘘 【うそ】lie, falsehood, incorrect fact
壊す 【こわす】① to break, to destroy, to demolish ② to wreck, to ruin, to spoil, to damage ③ to break (a bill, etc.)
尋ねる 【たずねる】① to ask, to enquire, to inquire ② to search, to look for, to look into, to investigate
それほどto that degree, extent
またはor, otherwise
なかなか① very, considerably, easily, readily, fairly, quite, highly, rather ② by no means (with negative verb)
ちゃんとperfectly, properly, exactly
意思 【いし】intention, purpose
見送る 【みおくる】① to see off (e.g. to the station, an airport, etc.), to escort (e.g. home), to farewell ② to see out, to send off ③ to let pass, to wait and see, to continue (e.g. in legal contexts) ④ to let a pitch go by (baseball), to watch a batted ball go into the stands
注目 【ちゅうもく】notice, attention, observation
発見 【はっけん】discovery, detection, finding
発行 【はっこう】① issue (publications), publishing ② raising an event (software)
安定 【あんてい】stability, equilibrium
確実 【かくじつ】certainty, reliability, soundness
活用 【かつよう】① practical use, application ② conjugation, declension, inflection
思想 【しそう】thought, idea, ideology
消費 【しょうひ】consumption, expenditure
組合 【くみあい】association, union
身体 【しんたい】① body ② health
満足 【まんぞく】① satisfaction ② sufficiency
明らか 【あきらか】obvious, evident, clear, plain
目指す 【めざす】to aim at, to have an eye on
理想 【りそう】ideal, dream
意識 【いしき】① consciousness ② awareness, sense ③ mano-vijnana (mental consciousness, cognizer of sensory information)
可能 【かのう】possible, practicable, feasible
解決 【かいけつ】settlement, solution, resolution
関心 【かんしん】concern, interest
疑問 【ぎもん】question, problem, doubt, guess
権利 【けんり】right, privilege
現実 【げんじつ】reality
構成 【こうせい】organization, organisation, configuration, composition
困難 【こんなん】difficulty, distress
罪 【つみ】crime, fault, indiscretion, sin
支給 【しきゅう】provision, supply, payment, allowance, grant
失う 【うしなう】to lose, to part with
種 【たね】① seed, pip, kind, variety, quality, tone ② material, matter, subject, theme, (news) copy, leaven (bread) ③ cause, source, trick, secret, inside story
除く 【のぞく】to remove, to exclude, to except
状況 【じょうきょう】state of affairs (around you), situation, circumstances
職業 【しょくぎょう】occupation, business
跡 【あと】① trace, tracks, mark, sign ② remains, ruins ③ scar
絶対 【ぜったい】① absolutely, unconditionally ② absolute, unconditional, unmistakable ③ absoluteness
河 【かわ】① river, stream ② the .... river, (suffix used with the names of rivers)
単純 【たんじゅん】simplicity
担当 【たんとう】(in) charge (of an area of responsibility, but not necessarily supervision of staff)
地域 【ちいき】area, region
泥 【どろ】mud
適用 【てきよう】applying (e.g. a technology), adoption
得意 【とくい】① triumph, prosperity ② pride ③ one's strong point, one's forte, one's specialty ④ frequent customer (client, etc.)
判断 【はんだん】judgement, judgment, decision, adjudication, conclusion, decipherment, divination
犯罪 【はんざい】crime
必ずしも 【かならずしも】(not) always, (not) necessarily, (not) all, (not) entirely
風景 【ふうけい】scenery
役割 【やくわり】part, assigning (allotment of) parts, role, duties
有効 【ゆうこう】validity, legality, availability, effectiveness
容易 【ようい】easy, simple, plain
要するに 【ようするに】in a word, after all, the point is ..., in short ...
理解 【りかい】understanding, comprehension, appreciation, sympathy
輪 【わ】① ring, circle, loop ② hoop ③ wheel
論じる 【ろんじる】to argue, to discuss, to debate
論争 【ろんそう】controversy, dispute
平均 【へいきん】① average, mean ② balance, equilibrium
雇う 【やとう】① to employ ② to hire, to charter
握る 【にぎる】to grasp, to seize, to mould sushi, to mold sushi
扱う 【あつかう】to handle, to deal with, to treat
意志 【いし】will, volition, intention, intent, determination
維持 【いじ】maintenance, preservation, improvement
一致 【いっち】① coincidence, agreement, union, match ② conformity, consistency ③ cooperation
解釈 【かいしゃく】explanation, interpretation
拡大 【かくだい】magnification, enlargement, expansion
環境 【かんきょう】environment, circumstance
既に 【すでに】already, too late
貴重 【きちょう】precious, valuable
繰り返す 【くりかえす】to repeat, to do something over again
契約 【けいやく】contract, compact, agreement
結果 【けっか】① result, consequence, outcome, effect ② coming to fruition, bearing fruit
結論 【けつろん】conclusion
懸命 【けんめい】eagerness, earnestness, risking one's life
検討 【けんとう】consideration, examination, investigation, study, scrutiny, discussion
誇り 【ほこり】pride, boast
考慮 【こうりょ】consideration, taking into account
貢献 【こうけん】contribution, services
至る 【いたる】① to arrive at (e.g. a decision), to reach (a stage), to attain ② to lead to (a place), to get to
種 【しゅ】① kind, variety ② (biological) species ③ (logical) species
需要 【じゅよう】demand, request
就く 【つく】① to ascend (the throne), to accede ② to take (seat, position, course, etc.), to assume ③ to start (on a journey), to commence, to depart ④ to study (under teacher), to be an apprentice
重視 【じゅうし】importance, stress, serious consideration
証明 【しょうめい】proof, verification
障害 【しょうがい】① obstacle, impediment, hindrance, difficulty, barrier ② handicap, impairment, disability, disorder, malfunction
条件 【じょうけん】condition, conditions, term, terms, requirement, requirements
譲る 【ゆずる】to turn over, to assign, to hand over, to transmit, to convey, to sell, to dispose of, to yield, to surrender
唇 【くちびる】lips
整理 【せいり】sorting, arrangement, organization, putting in order, adjustment, regulation, liquidation
善 【ぜん】good, goodness, right, virtue
組織 【そしき】① organization, organisation ② structure, construction ③ tissue ④ system
喪失 【そうしつ】loss, forfeit
怠ける 【なまける】① to be idle, to slacken ② to neglect (e.g. one's work)
抵抗 【ていこう】electrical resistance, resistance, opposition
提案 【ていあん】proposal, proposition, suggestion
提出 【ていしゅつ】① to present, to submit (e.g. a report or a thesis), to hand in, to file, to turn in ② presentation, submission, filing
統計 【とうけい】statistics
道徳 【どうとく】morals
虹 【にじ】rainbow
範囲 【はんい】extent, scope, sphere, range, span
批判 【ひはん】criticism, judgement, judgment, comment
微妙 【びみょう】① delicate, subtle, sensitive ② difficult, delicate (situation), complicated ③ doubtful, questionable, dicey
武器 【ぶき】weapon, arms, ordnance
分析 【ぶんせき】analysis
墓 【はか】gravesite, tomb
妨げる 【さまたげる】to disturb, to prevent, to obstruct, to hinder
無視 【むし】disregard, ignore
無駄 【むだ】futility, uselessness, pointlessness
厄介 【やっかい】trouble, burden, care, bother, worry, dependence, support, kindness, obligation
唯一 【ゆいいつ】only, sole, unique
利益 【りえき】① profit, gains ② benefit, advantage, interest (of the public, etc.) ③ grace (of God, Buddha, etc.) (esp. as attained through rightful actions, prayer, adherence to one's faith, etc.), blessing, miracle
絞る 【しぼる】to press, to wring, to squeeze, to narrow (down), to whittle (down), to tighten
事態 【じたい】situation, (present) state of affairs, circumstances
勧める 【すすめる】to recommend, to advise, to encourage, to offer (wine)
餌 【えさ】feed, bait
袖 【そで】sleeve
莫大 【ばくだい】enormous, vast
およそabout, roughly, as a rule, approximately
ほぼalmost, roughly, approximately
脇 【わき】① side, aside ② armpit ③ back-burner
曖昧 【あいまい】① vague, ambiguous, unclear ② fuzzy
かなりconsiderably, fairly, quite
せっかくwith trouble, at great pains, long-awaited
ふもとthe foot, the bottom, the base (of a mountain)
だらしないslovenly, loose, sluttish, slatternly
しばしばblinking repeatedly
心理 【しんり】mentality
住まい 【すまい】dwelling, house, residence, address
安易 【あんい】① easy, simple ② easy-going
筆者 【ひっしゃ】writer (often in self-reference), author
反映 【はんえい】① influence ② to apply, to implement ③ reflection
解放 【かいほう】① release, unleashing, liberation, emancipation, setting free ② deallocation (of computer memory)
改正 【かいせい】revision, amendment, alteration
寄せる 【よせる】① to come near, to let someone approach ② to collect, to gather, to receive ③ to add ④ to put aside
給与 【きゅうよ】pay, salary, wages, allowance, grant, supply
漁業 【ぎょぎょう】fishing (industry)
境界 【きょうかい】boundary
候補 【こうほ】① candidate, contender, prospect, pick, choice, list ② candidacy, candidature, nomination
承る 【うけたまわる】① to hear, to be told, to know ② to receive (order), to undertake, to comply, to take (a reservation, etc.)
対照 【たいしょう】contrast, antithesis, comparison
超える 【こえる】① to cross over, to cross, to pass through, to pass over (out of) ② to exceed
意義 【いぎ】meaning, significance
艶 【つや】gloss, glaze
恩 【おん】favour, favor, obligation, debt of gratitude
研修 【けんしゅう】training (esp. in-service), induction course
項目 【こうもく】(data) item, entry
市場 【しじょう】(the) market (as a concept)
焦点 【しょうてん】focus (e.g. photographic), focal point
診断 【しんだん】diagnosis
妥当 【だとう】valid, proper, right, appropriate
対策 【たいさく】counter-plan, counter-measure
典型 【てんけい】type, pattern, archetypal
展開 【てんかい】① development ② expansion (opposite of compression)
特殊 【とくしゅ】special, unique
非難 【ひなん】blame, attack, criticism
評論 【ひょうろん】criticism, critique
普及 【ふきゅう】diffusion, spread
要旨 【ようし】point, essentials, gist, summary, fundamentals
臨時 【りんじ】temporary, special, extraordinary
冠 【かんむり】① cap (esp. a traditional cap worn with sokutai or ikan clothing), crown, diadem, coronet ② top kanji radical ③ first verse of a haikai, etc. ④ best, peerless, first
基準 【きじゅん】standard, basis, criterion, norm, reference, datum
いったん① once ② for a moment, temporarily
つながりconnection, link, relationship
繋げる 【つなげる】to tie, to fasten, to connect, to transfer (phone call)
縞 【しま】stripe, bar, streak
塵 【ちり】dust, dirt
すなわちthat is, namely, i.e.
這う 【はう】to creep, to crawl
あくまでto the end, to the bitter end, to the last, stubbornly, persistently, to the utmost
ややa little, partially, somewhat, a short time, a while
きっかけchance, start, cue, excuse, motive, impetus, occasion
見方 【みかた】viewpoint
雇用 【こよう】employment (long term), hire
悪化 【あっか】(suffer) deterioration, growing worse, aggravation, degeneration, corruption
依然 【いぜん】still, as yet, as it has been
委託 【いたく】consign (goods (for sale) to a firm), entrust (person with something), commit
移行 【いこう】switching over to, migration
移民 【いみん】① emigration, immigration ② emigrant, immigrant
運営 【うんえい】management, administration, operation
運輸 【うんゆ】transportation
運用 【うんよう】making use of, application, investment, practical use
加入 【かにゅう】becoming a member, joining, entry, admission, subscription, affiliation, adherence, signing
加味 【かみ】① seasoning, flavoring, flavouring ② taking (something) into consideration, taking into account
家計 【かけい】household economy, family finances
開催 【かいさい】holding a meeting, open an exhibition
階級 【かいきゅう】class, rank, grade
概念 【がいねん】general idea, concept, notion
該当 【がいとう】corresponding, answering to, coming under, applying to
格差 【かくさ】qualitative difference, disparity
獲得 【かくとく】acquisition, possession
確保 【かくほ】guarantee, maintain, ensure, insure, secure, reservation
株式 【かぶしき】stock (company)
刊行 【かんこう】publication, issue
幹部 【かんぶ】management, (executive) staff, leaders, leadership, top brass, upper echelons
慣行 【かんこう】customary practice, customary practise, habit, traditional event
観点 【かんてん】point of view
還元 【かんげん】resolution, reduction, return to origins
機構 【きこう】mechanism, organization, organisation
規模 【きぼ】scale, scope, plan, structure
技 【わざ】technique, art
技能 【ぎのう】technical skill, ability, capacity
客観 【きゃっかん】object (as opposed to subject)
究極 【きゅうきょく】ultimate, extreme, final, eventual
距離 【きょり】distance, range
享受 【きょうじゅ】reception, acceptance, enjoyment, being given
協調 【きょうちょう】① cooperation, conciliation, harmony ② firm (market) tone
叫び 【さけび】shout, scream, outcry
業績 【ぎょうせき】achievement, performance, results, work, contribution
勤務 【きんむ】service, duty, work
契機 【けいき】opportunity, chance
形成 【けいせい】formation, molding, taking form
形態 【けいたい】form, shape, figure
恵む 【めぐむ】① to bless, to show mercy to ② to give (money, etc.)
掲載 【けいさい】① publication (e.g. article in paper), appearance, insertion ② to insert (e.g. an article), to run (e.g. in a newspaper)
経路 【けいろ】① course, route, path, channel ② process, means
決意 【けつい】decision, determination
結束 【けっそく】union, unity
厳密 【げんみつ】strict, close
減少 【げんしょう】decrease, reduction, decline
限定 【げんてい】limit, restriction
孤立 【こりつ】isolation, helplessness
後退 【こうたい】① retreat ② backspace, BS
語源 【ごげん】word root, word derivation, etymology
交渉 【こうしょう】① negotiations, discussions ② connection
好況 【こうきょう】prosperous conditions, healthy economy
拘束 【こうそく】restriction, restraint, binding
控える 【ひかえる】① to be temperate in, to restrain oneself from excessive ... ② to make notes ③ to hold back ④ to be in preparation for, to be in waiting for ⑤ to be soon, to be in the offing ⑥ to be in a close relationship (e.g. as a backer, etc.)
行為 【こうい】act, deed, conduct
根拠 【こんきょ】basis, foundation
混同 【こんどう】confusion, mixing, merger
差し支える 【さしつかえる】to interfere, to hinder, to become impeded
差異 【さい】difference, disparity
最善 【さいぜん】the very best
採掘 【さいくつ】mining
採用 【さいよう】① use, adoption, acceptance ② appointment, employment, engagement
財政 【ざいせい】financial affairs, public finance
削減 【さくげん】cut, reduction, curtailment
雑談 【ざつだん】chatting, idle talk
参照 【さんしょう】reference, bibliographical reference, consultation, browsing (e.g. when selecting a file to upload on a computer), checking out
志向 【しこう】intention, aim
思考 【しこう】thought, consideration, thinking
指摘 【してき】pointing out, identification
至って 【いたって】very much, exceedingly, extremely
視野 【しや】field of vision, outlook
試みる 【こころみる】to try, to test
雌 【めす】female (animal)
事項 【じこう】matter, item, facts
事柄 【ことがら】matter, thing, affair, circumstance
治安 【ちあん】public order
軸 【じく】axis, stem, shaft, axle
社交 【しゃこう】social life, social intercourse
社宅 【しゃたく】company owned house
遮る 【さえぎる】to interrupt, to intercept, to obstruct
若干 【じゃっかん】some, few, number of
主観 【しゅかん】① subjectivity, subject, ego ② one's personal opinion, one's own idea
就業 【しゅうぎょう】employment, starting work
集計 【しゅうけい】totalization, totalisation, aggregation, tally (e.g. votes)
従事 【じゅうじ】engaging, pursuing, following (e.g. profession or occupation)
柔軟 【じゅうなん】flexible, lithe, soft, pliable
出現 【しゅつげん】appearance, arrival, make one's appearance
所在 【しょざい】whereabouts
所属 【しょぞく】attached to, belong to, member
所得 【しょとく】income, earnings
諸君 【しょくん】Gentlemen!, Ladies!
除外 【じょがい】exception, exclusion
唱える 【となえる】① to recite, to chant ② to call upon
昇進 【しょうしん】promotion
沼 【ぬま】swamp, bog, pond, lake
障る 【さわる】to hinder, to interfere with, to affect, to do one harm, to be harmful to
嬢 【じょう】① unmarried woman ② (after a name) Miss ③ (after a line of work) -ess, -ette
食い違う 【くいちがう】to cross each other, to run counter to, to differ, to clash, to go awry
進行 【しんこう】advance, progress
尽きる 【つきる】to be used up, to be run out, to be exhausted, to be consumed, to come to an end
世帯 【せたい】household, home, family, housekeeping
成熟 【せいじゅく】maturity, ripeness
政策 【せいさく】political measures, policy
正規 【せいき】regular, normal, legal, formal, established, legitimate
先行 【せんこう】preceding, going first, leading, going ahead, taking priority
前提 【ぜんてい】preamble, premise, reason, prerequisite, condition, assumption, hypothesis, given
措置 【そち】measure, measures, step
創刊 【そうかん】launching (e.g. newspaper), first issue
相対 【そうたい】relative
促す 【うながす】to urge, to press, to prompt, to suggest, to demand, to stimulate, to quicken, to incite, to invite (attention to)
対応 【たいおう】① interaction, correspondence, coping with, dealing with, support ② software support, ability of a computer system to run specific software
対抗 【たいこう】opposition, antagonism
対比 【たいひ】contrast, comparison
対面 【たいめん】interview, meeting
待遇 【たいぐう】treatment, reception
大幅 【おおはば】full width, large scale, drastic
達成 【たっせい】achievement
築く 【きずく】to build, to pile up, to amass
蓄積 【ちくせき】accumulation, accumulate, store
着目 【ちゃくもく】attention
直面 【ちょくめん】① confrontation ② to face, to confront, to encounter
賃金 【ちんぎん】wages
追い出す 【おいだす】to expel, to drive out
通常 【つうじょう】common, general, normal, usual
定まる 【さだまる】to become settled, to be fixed
提供 【ていきょう】offer, tender, program sponsoring, programme sponsoring, furnishing, provisioning, supply
展望 【てんぼう】view, outlook, prospect
転じる 【てんじる】to turn, to shift, to alter, to distract
転落 【てんらく】fall, degradation, slump, spill
倒産 【とうさん】(corporate) bankruptcy, insolvency, commercial failure, failed business
統合 【とうごう】① integration, unification, synthesis ② integrated, built-in
到達 【とうたつ】reaching, attaining, arrival
動向 【どうこう】trend, tendency, movement, attitude
同居 【どうきょ】coexistence, living together
胴 【どう】① trunk, torso, body, abdomen, waist ② plastron (in kendo), touching the plastron (kimari-te in kendo) ③ frame (of a drum, etc.), sound box (of a shamisen, etc.), hull (of a ship)
特権 【とっけん】privilege, special right
内閣 【ないかく】cabinet, (government) ministry
認識 【にんしき】recognition, cognizance, cognisance
納入 【のうにゅう】payment, supply
把握 【はあく】grasp, catch, understanding
派 【は】clique, faction, school
破壊 【はかい】① destruction, disruption ② (application) crash
排除 【はいじょ】exclusion, removal, rejection, elimination, abatement, lifting (sanctions, etc.)
背景 【はいけい】background, scenery, setting, circumstance
配慮 【はいりょ】consideration, concern, forethought
発生 【はっせい】① outbreak, spring forth, occurrence, incidence, origin ② ontogeny, development of complex multicellular structures from cell(s) in a simple state
反撃 【はんげき】counterattack, counteroffensive, counterblow
班 【はん】group, party, section (mil)
比例 【ひれい】proportion
眉 【まゆ】eyebrow, eyebrows
貧困 【ひんこん】poverty, lack
不況 【ふきょう】recession, depression, slump
富 【とみ】wealth, fortune
富む 【とむ】to be rich, to become rich
扶養 【ふよう】support, maintenance
赴任 【ふにん】(proceeding to) new appointment
分業 【ぶんぎょう】division of labor, division of labour, specialization, specialisation, assembly-line production
分散 【ぶんさん】dispersion, decentralization, decentralisation, variance (statistics), distribution, dissemination, allocation
分配 【ぶんぱい】division, sharing, distribution, dissemination, allocation
分裂 【ぶんれつ】split, division, break up
変革 【へんかく】① change, reform, revolution, upheaval ② Reformation
保護 【ほご】care, protection, shelter, safeguard, guardianship, favor, favour, patronage
歩む 【あゆむ】to walk, to go on foot
補助 【ほじょ】assistance, support, aid, auxiliary
崩壊 【ほうかい】① collapse, crumbling, breaking down, caving in ② decay (physics)
放棄 【ほうき】abandonment, renunciation, resignation, abdication (responsibility, right)
放置 【ほうち】leave as is, leave to chance, leave alone, neglect
模索 【もさく】groping (for), exploring for a solution
誘導 【ゆうどう】guidance, leading, induction, introduction, incitement, inducement
予想 【よそう】expectation, anticipation, prediction, forecast, conjecture
余暇 【よか】leisure, leisure time, spare time
様相 【ようそう】aspect
要因 【よういん】main cause, primary factor
理性 【りせい】reason, sense
略語 【りゃくご】abbreviation, acronym
良好 【りょうこう】favorable, favourable, satisfactory
領域 【りょういき】area, domain, territory, field, range, region, regime
連帯 【れんたい】① solidarity, collective ② joint
枠 【わく】frame, slide, border
円滑 【えんかつ】smooth, undisturbed, uninterrupted, harmonious
善し悪し 【よしあし】good or bad, merits or demerits, quality, suitability
奉る 【たてまつる】to offer, to present, to revere, to do respectfully
融通 【ゆうずう】① lending (money), finance ② adaptability, versatility, flexibility, accommodation
意欲 【いよく】will, desire, ambition
規範 【きはん】model, standard, pattern, norm, criterion, example
収集 【しゅうしゅう】gathering up, collection, accumulation
担う 【になう】to carry on shoulder, to bear (burden), to shoulder (gun)
図る 【はかる】① to plot, to attempt, to plan, to devise, to design ② to take in, to deceive ③ to aim for, to have something in mind ④ to refer A to B
普遍 【ふへん】universal, ubiquitous, omnipresent
保障 【ほしょう】guarantee, security, assurance, pledge, warranty
見通し 【みとおし】perspective, unobstructed view, outlook, forecast, prospect, insight, foresight, visibility
著 【ちょ】① work, book ② (a book) by ③ obvious, striking
崖 【がけ】cliff
あえてdare (to do something), venture (often overcoming reluctance, or in the face of probable failure), take upon oneself, challenge, presume, (there is no) need to, (don't) go as far as, definitely (not)
辿る 【たどる】to follow (road), to pursue (course), to follow up, to follow (hyperlink)
奢る 【おごる】to give (someone) a treat
おもなるmain, principal, important
途切れる 【とぎれる】to pause, to be interrupted
とりわけ① especially, above all ② inter alia, among others
アプローチ① approach ② approach shot
テーマtopic, theme, project
生み出す 【うみだす】① to create, to bring forth, to produce ② to invent, to think up and bring into being ③ to give birth to, to bear
なかなか① very, considerably, easily, readily, fairly, quite, highly, rather ② by no means (with negative verb)
わが国 【わがくに】our country, our land, one's own country
学界 【がっかい】academic or scientific world
気楽 【きらく】at ease, comfortable
広がり 【ひろがり】spread, span
死去 【しきょ】death
自前 【じまえ】① taking care one's responsibilities by oneself, one's own efforts, one's own expense ② going into business for oneself (selling one's own products), entrepreneur of such a business
自発 【じはつ】spontaneous
主たる 【しゅたる】main, principal, major
手持ち 【てもち】holdings, goods on hand
先立つ 【さきだつ】to lead, to precede, to die before someone, to go before, to take precedence
有意 【ゆうい】significance
あり方 【ありかた】① the way something ought to be ② the (current) state of things, how things are
と言っても 【といっても】although I say, although one might say, although called
下記 【かき】the following
計量 【けいりょう】① measurement, computation ② metric, measure
欠勤 【けっきん】absence (from work)
欠落 【けつらく】missing, lacking
決定的 【けっていてき】definite, final, decisive, conclusive
見合う 【みあう】① to exchange glances ② to correspond, to counterbalance
公的 【こうてき】public, official
糸口 【いとぐち】thread end, beginning, clue
事例 【じれい】example, precedent
自営 【じえい】independent, self-employed, self-supporting, operating own business
自明 【じめい】obvious, self-evident, trivial, axiomatic, self-explanatory
主流 【しゅりゅう】main current (stream), mainline, mainstream
全人 【ぜんじん】saint, person well-balanced morally and intellectually
想定 【そうてい】hypothesis, supposition, assumption
単身 【たんしん】alone, unaided, away from home
着実 【ちゃくじつ】steady, sound, trustworthy, solid
中退 【ちゅうたい】leaving school during a term
追求 【ついきゅう】① pursuing (goal), pursuit, seeking, search ② to pursue (e.g. goal), to seek
低迷 【ていめい】hanging low (over), hovering around (price level), low hanging (e.g. clouds), sluggish (e.g. economy), slump, recession
定数 【ていすう】① constant ② literal ③ quorum (for an assembly) ④ fate
定着 【ていちゃく】establishing
内実 【ないじつ】the facts
不安定 【ふあんてい】instability, insecurity, crankiness
不平等 【ふびょうどう】inequality, unequal (treaties), unfair
部落 【ぶらく】① hamlet, subunit of village ② burakumin area
分化 【ぶんか】specialization, specialisation
夜勤 【やきん】night shift
落書き 【らくがき】scrawl, scribble, graffiti
留意 【りゅうい】heeding, paying attention, bearing in mind
化す 【かす】to change into, to convert to, to transform, to be reduced, to influence, to improve (someone)
取り組み 【とりくみ】① bout (in sports, etc.), match ② effort, initiative, dealing with, grappling with, wrestling with
とりわけ① especially, above all ② inter alia, among others
引き合い 【ひきあい】① reference, comparison, example ② inquiry, enquiry ③ witness, being involved in a court case, deal
類型 【るいけい】① type, pattern, shape, genre, breed ② similar type, similar pattern
自営業 【じえいぎょう】independent business
路上 【ろじょう】(on the) road, (on the) way
横ばい 【よこばい】① sidewise crawl (e.g. of a crab), crawling sideways ② leafhopper (insect), jassid ③ sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes) ④ levelling off, stabilizing
野宿 【のじゅく】sleeping outdoors, sleeping out in the open air, camping
迷い 【まよい】① hesitation, bewilderment, doubt, indecision ② inability to reach enlightenment
実生活 【じっせいかつ】real or actual life
見取り図 【みとりず】a (rough) sketch
所持金 【しょじきん】money in one's possession
進め方 【すすめかた】format, procedure, way of proceeding
犯 【はん】perpetrators of (some) crime, (some type of) crime
当てずっぽう 【あてずっぽう】conjecture, guesswork, at random
圧倒的 【あっとうてき】overwhelming
ちなみにby the way, in this connection, incidentally, in passing
仮 【かり】① temporary, provisional, interim ② fictitious, assumed (name), alias
過言 【かごん】exaggeration, saying too much
解禁 【かいきん】lifting a ban
解明 【かいめい】clarification, elucidation, explication
開設 【かいせつ】establishment, opening
管理職 【かんりしょく】management
逆説 【ぎゃくせつ】paradox
急増 【きゅうぞう】explosion, proliferation, surge
求職 【きゅうしょく】job hunting, seeking employment
給付 【きゅうふ】① payment, provision, benefit, present, delivery ② performance
言説 【げんせつ】remark, statement, discourse
構築 【こうちく】construction
考察 【こうさつ】consideration, inquiry, enquiry
在籍 【ざいせき】enrollment, enrolment
財団 【ざいだん】foundation
指針 【ししん】compass needle (cursor), guideline, pointer
緒 【いとぐち】thread end, beginning, clue
時給 【じきゅう】hourly pay, hourly wage
失業者 【しつぎょうしゃ】unemployed person
手探り 【てさぐり】fumbling, groping
周知 【しゅうち】common knowledge, (something) well-known
周到 【しゅうとう】scrupulous, meticulous, careful
勝ち抜く 【かちぬく】to win through
消失 【しょうしつ】die out, disappear, vanish
上述 【じょうじゅつ】above-mentioned, foregoing, forgoing
人権 【じんけん】human rights, civil liberties
人付き合い 【ひとづきあい】social disposition
積極 【せっきょく】positive, progressive
選抜 【せんばつ】selection, choice, picking out
総務 【そうむ】general business (affairs), manager, director, adjutant general (mil)
造語 【ぞうご】coined word
すなわちthat is, namely, i.e.
村民 【そんみん】villager
断片 【だんぺん】fragment, crumb, shred, bits and pieces
珍 【ちん】rare, curious, strange
転職 【てんしょく】change of occupation
渡り 【わたり】ferry
怒る 【いかる】① to get angry, to get mad ② to tell someone off, to scold ③ to be angular, to be square
突きつける 【つきつける】to thrust before, to thrust at
内包 【ないほう】① connotation, comprehension, intension ② inclusion, containment within
難民 【なんみん】refugees
日経 【にっけい】Nikkei (newspaper, share index)
認知 【にんち】acknowledgement, acknowledgment, recognition
年収 【ねんしゅう】annual income
悲痛 【ひつう】bitterness, pathos
氷河 【ひょうが】glacier
表象 【ひょうしょう】symbol, emblem
不純 【ふじゅん】impurity, adulteration, dishonesty, irregularity
府県 【ふけん】prefecture
浮かび上がる 【うかびあがる】to rise to the surface
副題 【ふくだい】subtitle, subheading
福利 【ふくり】welfare
閉ざす 【とざす】to shut, to close, to lock, to fasten, to plunge (in grief)
変数 【へんすう】variable (e.g. math), parameter
変容 【へんよう】changed appearance
包含 【ほうがん】① inclusion, comprehension, implication ② to include, to comprise, to contain, to implicate
報告書 【ほうこくしょ】(written) report
放任 【ほうにん】noninterference, leaving something to take its own course, giving someone a free hand with something
法人 【ほうじん】corporate body, corporation, (legal) person, (juridical) person
本格化 【ほんかくか】regularization, regularisation, getting up speed, proceeding at full tilt
目論む 【もくろむ】to plan, to form a plan, to scheme, to envision, to intend to do
友愛 【ゆうあい】fraternity, friendship
欲求 【よっきゅう】desire
浴びせる 【あびせる】to pour on
冷戦 【れいせん】cold war
零 【れい】zero, nought
齢 【よわい】(one's) age
連 【れん】① (taxonomical) tribe ② quinella (quiniela) ③ party, company, group ④ two reams (i.e. 1000 sheets of paper)
論者 【ろんしゃ】advocate
論点 【ろんてん】point in question (at issue)
願望 【がんぼう】desire, wish, aspiration
仮説 【かせつ】hypothesis, supposition, fictional
希薄 【きはく】thin (e.g. air), lean, rarified, diluted, sparse, weak, rarefied
切り捨てる 【きりすてる】① to cut down, to slay ② to truncate, to round down, to round off ③ to omit, to discard, to cast away
若年 【じゃくねん】youth
伸び 【のび】① growth, development ② stretching (e.g. body when waking up) ③ spread, elongation, extension, carry (e.g. of sound), sustain
居場所 【いばしょ】whereabouts
諸悪 【しょあく】every (kind of) evil or crime
担い手 【にないて】a bearer, carrier, person in charge
製造業 【せいぞうぎょう】manufacturing industry
雇用者 【こようしゃ】① employee ② employer, person hiring others
高齢者 【こうれいしゃ】old person or people
職種 【しょくしゅ】type of occupation, occupational category
子供部屋 【こどもべや】child's room, nursery
極 【きょく】① pole ② climax, extreme, extremity, culmination, height, zenith, nadir
許 【もと】under (esp. influence or guidance)
抜き 【ぬき】① without, not including, dispensed with ② (beating) in succession
そもそもin the first place, to begin with, from the start, originally, ab initio
哀れむ 【あわれむ】to commiserate, to pity, to have mercy on, to sympathize with, to sympathise with
依拠 【いきょ】dependence
遺伝 【いでん】heredity, inherent
一環 【いっかん】link (e.g. a part of a larger plan)
一貫 【いっかん】① consistency, coherence, integration ② one kan (8.333 lbs)
一端 【いったん】① one end, an end ② part, fragment
徴 【しるし】① mark ② symbol ③ evidence
加盟 【かめい】participation, affiliation
おおむね① in general, generally, mostly, roughly, largely, mainly, on the whole, by and large ② gist, point, main idea
概観 【がいかん】general view, outline
概要 【がいよう】outline, summary, abridgment, synopsis
株券 【かぶけん】stock certificate
株式会社 【かぶしきがいしゃ】public company, corporation, KK, formula for an incorporated public company
幹事 【かんじ】executive secretary, coordinator, organizer, person in charge of making arrangements
陥る 【おちいる】to fall, to trap, to cave in, to collapse
企み 【たくらみ】plan, design, artifice, trick, intrigue
既存 【きそん】existing
亀 【かめ】tortoise, turtle
空洞化 【くうどうか】making hollow, making meaningless
繰り広げる 【くりひろげる】to unfold, to unroll, to open
刑法 【けいほう】criminal law, penal code
警鐘 【けいしょう】alarm bell, fire bell
軽視 【けいし】despise, slight, ignore, neglect
欠如 【けつじょ】lack, privation, deficiency
懸念 【けねん】worry, fear, anxiety, concern
検証 【けんしょう】verification, inspection
検定 【けんてい】official certification, approval, inspection
顕著 【けんちょ】remarkable, striking, obvious
源泉 【げんせん】source
言及 【げんきゅう】reference, allusion
拘泥 【こうでい】adherence to, being a stickler
根源 【こんげん】root, source, origin, foundation, base, principle
債権 【さいけん】credit, claim
崎 【さき】small peninsula
遺る 【のこる】to remain, to be left
指標 【しひょう】index, indices, indicator
支援 【しえん】support, backing, aid, assistance
試行錯誤 【しこうさくご】trial and error
示唆 【しさ】suggestion, hint, implication
疾患 【しっかん】disease, ailment
射程 【しゃてい】range (e.g. of a rifle, missile, etc.)
尺度 【しゃくど】linear measure, scale
就ける 【つける】① to install (a king, emperor, etc.) ② to appoint (to a post) ③ to assign (to study under)
就労 【しゅうろう】actual work
従属 【じゅうぞく】subordination, dependency
処遇 【しょぐう】treatment, dealing with
障壁 【しょうへき】enclosing wall, barrier
醸成 【じょうせい】brew, foment, breed
嘱託 【しょくたく】① commission, charge (person with), entrusting with ② part-time (employee)
浸透 【しんとう】① permeation, penetration, soaking ② osmosis
推移 【すいい】transition, change
推計 【すいけい】estimate, estimation
推論 【すいろん】inference, deduction, induction, reasoning
衰退 【すいたい】decline, decay
整合 【せいごう】adjustment, coordination, integration, conformity
選択肢 【せんたくし】choices, alternatives, options
脚 【あし】① foot ② leg ③ gait ④ pace ⑤ bottom structural component (i.e. radical) of a kanji ⑥ means of transportation
属性 【ぞくせい】attribute, property, context
多岐 【たき】digression, many divergences
代償 【だいしょう】compensation, indemnification, reparation, consideration
大雑把 【おおざっぱ】rough (as in not precise), broad, sketchy
沢 【さわ】① swamp, marsh ② mountain stream, valley, dale
端的 【たんてき】frank, direct, plain, straightforward, point-blank
端末 【たんまつ】computer terminal
塚 【つか】mound
低賃金 【ていちんぎん】low wages
提起 【ていき】bring suit, file a claim, raise a question
提言 【ていげん】proposal, motion
提唱 【ていしょう】advocacy, proposal
逃避 【とうひ】escape, evasion, flight
闘争 【とうそう】strife, conflict
同輩 【どうはい】fellows, comrade, colleague, one's equal
得策 【とくさく】profitable plan, good plan
忍耐 【にんたい】endurance, perseverance, patience
年俸 【ねんぽう】annual salary
納品 【のうひん】delivery of goods
排他 【はいた】exclusion
培う 【つちかう】to cultivate, to foster
媒介 【ばいかい】intermediary
拍車 【はくしゃ】(riding) spur
発祥 【はっしょう】origin, appearance of auspicious omen
発端 【ほったん】origin, genesis, opening, start, beginning
不充分 【ふじゅうぶん】insufficient, inadequate, imperfect, shortage
不利益 【ふりえき】disadvantage, handicap, drawback, inadvisability, inexpediency
分岐 【ぶんき】① divergence (e.g. in a road), ramification ② forking, jump, multi-drop
堀 【ほり】moat, canal
繭 【まゆ】cocoon
密着 【みっちゃく】① glued to, closely related to ② giving total coverage to the key figure(s) of a TV or film documentary
無作為 【むさくい】at random, unintentional
無条件 【むじょうけん】unconditional
網羅 【もうら】comprising, including, covering, encompassing, comprehending
梨 【なし】nashi (Pyrus pyrifolia, esp. var. culta), Japanese pear, Asian pear, sand pear, apple pear
離脱 【りだつ】withdrawal, secession, separation, breakaway
慮る 【おもんぱかる】to consider
両氏 【りょうし】both persons
列挙 【れっきょ】enumeration, list
浪人 【ろうにん】① ronin, wandering samurai without a master to serve ② out of work ③ waiting for another chance to enter a university
博 【はく】① doctor, PhD ② exposition, fair, exhibition
挙げ句 【あげく】in the end, finally, after all, at last
卸売 【おろしうり】wholesale
過酷 【かこく】rigour, rigor, severity, cruelty, harsh
闘う 【たたかう】to fight, to battle, to combat, to struggle against, to wage war, to engage in contest
擁護 【ようご】① protection, advocacy, support, defence, championship, vindication ② to protect (e.g. rights, etc.), to advocate (e.g. free trade, etc.), to support
枠組み 【わくぐみ】frame, framework
枠組 【わくぐみ】frame, framework
粗雑 【そざつ】coarse, rough, crude
筒井 【つつい】round well
団塊 【だんかい】mass, lump
対症療法 【たいしょうりょうほう】symptomatic therapy, makeshift solution
基礎的 【きそてき】fundamental, basic
棺 【かん】coffin, casket
嵩 【かさ】bulk, volume, quantity
契約社員 【けいやくしゃいん】contract employee
派遣社員 【はけんしゃいん】temporary worker
摂る 【とる】to have (lunch, etc.), to take (vitamins, etc.)
猛 【もう】① greatly energetic ② ferocious ③ extreme, severe
しばしばoften, again and again, frequently
桶 【おけ】bucket
兜 【かぶと】helmet (of armor, armour), headpiece
卿 【きょう】① lord, sir ② state minister (i.e. under the ritsuryo system)
近畿 【きんき】Kinki (region around Osaka, Kyoto, Nara)
りす① squirrel (excluding flying squirrels) ② Japanese squirrel (Sciurus lis)
狐 【きつね】① fox (esp. the red fox, Vulpes vulpes) ② fox (i.e. a sly person) ③ soba or udon topped with deep-fried tofu ④ light brown
骨董 【こっとう】antique, curio
終焉 【しゅうえん】demise
罵倒 【ばとう】abuse, disparagement
蔑む 【さげすむ】to scorn, to despise
翻弄 【ほんろう】① trifling with, toying with, playing with, making sport of, making fun of, leading around by the nose ② tossing about (a ship)
碇 【いかり】anchor
いささかa little, a bit, somewhat
鞭 【むち】① whip, lash, scourge ② stick, cane, rod, pointer
脆弱 【ぜいじゃく】frail, brittle, fragility
癇 【かん】temper, nerves
惹く 【ひく】to attract, to captivate
さぎheron (Ardeidae)
静岡 【しずおか】Shizuoka (city)